A declaration of a new disease as a pandemic is made when there are no vaccines to stop the unmitigated spread of the novel disease. This is in accordance with the guidelines by the World Health Organization. In the course of world history, pandemics have shaped the world in a number of ways. They have brought about a change in lifestyle, health processes, impacted on travel, and ultimately resulted in the deaths of millions of people. In this article, we would take a look at the things that have and are being shaped by a global pandemic. Health System For every pandemic that has happened in the course of human history, the first sector to experience a massive hit is the health sector. Be it private or public owned, a global pandemic has always resulted in increased administrative and operational costs. There is also an impact on manpower. As more and more health workers get exposed to a pandemic, the possibility of a reduction in numbers due to deaths takes a big toll. With more people been admitted to hospitals and fewer medical personnel to take care of victims, hospital facilities and manpower are stretched to the limit. More often than not, the equipment used in the treatment is not sufficient enough to cope with the high influx of victims. The coronavirus pandemic is an attestation to this fact, as the world is still demanding for protective equipment and reagents used in testing and vaccine trails to deal with the virus. Economic Slump Due to pandemics, most countries in the world experience recessions they were not prepared for. Even developed countries feel the economic impact. This is because all economies of the world are interconnected, and a pandemic affecting one part of the world affects another part of the world sooner or later. Projected economic growths before the outbreak of a pandemic become a thing of the past as short-term economic shocks begin to take effect. This eventually has a negative long-term effect on the economies of countries of the world. Business activities become disrupted during a pandemic, with stock markets, manufacturing, gambling, and the entertainment sectors all feeling the impact economically. Most economies who were gradually dragging themselves out of a recession before a pandemic, are suddenly plunged back due to the negative economic growth when a pandemic breaks out. Projected financial forecasts have to be cast aside as the government battles with the financial means of tackling the pandemic. This has even resulted in many third world countries asking for more loans and grants from global financial institutions. In developed countries where their tax system works well, they are forced to waive them during pandemics. There also experience a drop in internal revenues from Other sectors, such as from the booming sports industry. The prevailing Coronavirus pandemic has halted sporting activities over two months, with revenue accrued by clubs reduced sharply. Food Security and Cost The people most affected by a pandemic are those who cannot afford to get enough food to eat. This is because the supply of food is drastically reduced due to the high transportation costs or severe disruptions in the transport system. Apart from food becoming scarce, even when they are available, the cost of buying will have risen sharply. This makes people who do not have the means or those who do not have any savings to cope with the sudden outbreak of a pandemic. That is why malnourishment thrives during a pandemic. Even when the government tries to provide succour, more often than not it does not get to the people who need it most. This could either be from the disrupted transportation activities or lack of information about the program. Tourism and Travel Industry Pandemics have always had a negative impact on the tourism and travel sector. Airline companies and cruise liners feel the impact as restrictions are made on travelling, as a way of curbing the spread of a pandemic. With less patronage of air flights to places that have been affected by a pandemic, airlines have to lay off workers if they want to remain afloat. This is a direct result of a drop in revenue they would normally have from continued patronage. Tourist sites also experienced a drastic downturn in revenue during a pandemic. This is interconnected with air travel. With the suspension or cancellation of all air flights, the number of tourists visiting historic sites reduces sharply. The sharp downturn in revenue could also be attributed to the fear of tourists been infected with the disease at the sites, medical insurance issues, and mass gatherings. Border closures are also a part of the cause. The Cruise liner industry has also been hit, as stories of people falling sick on their ships during a pandemic is a common occurrence as far back as when the first pandemic struck. This has led many of them to suspend or cancel cruise holidays because people are no longer buying tickets, so as to reduce the possibility of them been infected. The after-effects of the travel and tourism sector are that more and more people will as much as possible reduce their rate of travelling by air. Vacations on cruise ships would also be reduced, with more people resulting in spending their vacations where they are. Social Interaction There is no doubt that the outbreak of a pandemic has a dramatic effect on the social behaviour of mankind. Pandemics in the past and in the past few years have made people avoid bodily contact as much as possible, even to some extremes. Obsessive washing of hands, hands sterilizing and self-isolation has made social interactions become few and far between during pandemics. With the recent coronavirus pandemic ravaging the world, the new means of social interaction by social distancing is the new lingo in town. Education Educational systems are more often than not, disrupted during a pandemic. This has had implications on the quality of education delivered, especially in third world countries. The top mitigating measure taken by governments during a pandemic is to reduce gatherings to the barest minimum, so as to reduce the spread. This has many students staying at home. With recent developments in technology, virtual learning has become a solution. Though there is the problem of technical glitches and the distractions of learning from home to consider. This is a further burden on the finances of both schools and parents. But online learning does have the potential to bring about new innovations in the educational sector. With more interactive educational tools been developed, children could develop more interest in the learning process. That they can learn at any time of the day is another benefit to the remote learning method. With time, education stakeholders would be able to say if remote learning is an option that can be sustained. More Remote Jobs and Software Application With pandemic outbreaks, people have oftentimes resulted in working from their homes. This could be seen in the private and public sectors alike. In recent times, pandemics have made people seek out more jobs that are more remote in nature. Public work service systems do have limited staff strength as a means of preventing their workforce from been exposed during a pandemic. But, activities are still made to function through the remote allocation of duties. Software applications have also had their usage increase during the most recent global pandemics. More people are using these applications to get in touch with family and friends alike, as opposed to physically hanging out. Executive meetings are also be held by big corporate organizations as a means of reaching economic decisions when there is a pandemic. Parents are also using these software applications in the sourcing of educational content for their kids, to keep them educationally up to date., Job Losses The economic impact of a pandemic has always resulted in massive layoffs by both small and big companies alike. This is because, with the low scale of business activity, most of these companies try to reduce operational and labour costs by terminating the appointment of some of their staff. As a result, a pandemic comes with more people getting laid off, as the companies struggle to counter the economic imbalances. People who have jobs in the retail industry, leisure, and hospitality are most affected during a pandemic. Manufacturing firms also lay off some of their factory workers during this period. This has affected the entertainment hugely during this Coronavirus pandemic. The film industry has to make job cuts because so many filming schedules have had to be cancelled, with no probable date in sight. Business Closures Small scale business often becomes bankrupt when there is a pandemic outbreak. These businesses often have to rely on daily business activity for income, fold up whenever there is a pandemic. This is because of disruptions to their business flows. Even businesses that intend getting loans to stay afloat during a pandemic, more often than not are not given such loans. This is because banks would have carried out the financial implications of loaning out money at the outbreak of a pandemic. Shipping and Supply Chains The shipping industry alone accounts for over 90% of the trade that takes place globally. The shipping and supply chains most times during a pandemic are affected, as mitigating measures often times have an impact on them. This can be seen in the recent pandemics to have taken place. In 2002-2003, the Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS) epidemic had a financial impact on the shipping sector. And most recently, the present pandemic ravaging the globe, Coronavirus, has caused disruptions in the daily activities of the shipping and supply chain industry. https://www.youtube.com/watch?vJzT4UTIRM_A Loss of Lives There is no doubt that countless lives are always lost during a pandemic. This has both personal and economic impacts on the world. But this is especially felt during a pandemic, as the rate of morbidity at a very alarming rate. Often times, before a vaccine is developed, both young and old people with low body immunity would have succumbed to the pandemic. This was the case during the black plague when there was not much advancement in the field of medicine. The current pandemic ravaging the world, COVID-19, has accounted for the loss of lives that has surpassed the 1 million mark. This is despite the mammoth advancements that have been made in medicine. But pandemics are not a respecter of persons. Best Jobs There are some jobs that have a level of security during a pandemic. These jobs irrespective of a pandemic, still have the financial clout to cope. Jobs in the health sector are among these jobs that have some security during a pandemic. Workers in big conglomerates still have a level of job security, as their employers have a good financial foundation to adequately cope with the impacts of a pandemic. Teachers are also in high demand during a pandemic. This can be proved with the number of teachers sought out by online educational firms during this coronavirus pandemic. Jobs in the information technology and video gaming industry are among the jobs with a good level of security during a pandemic as well. Internet service providers are not left out here. With the economy been forced to run digitally, opportunities in the internet providers sector become more so as to tackle the increased demand. Political Crisis Countries that have weak institutions sometimes get caught up in political turmoil during a pandemic. Pandemic mitigating measures could result in public outrage, violence against constituted authorities resulting in deaths and insecurity. In some cases, the civil rights of citizens have been trampled upon. Insecurity With a pandemic, there are always cases of an increase in crime. This is more often because vulnerable people who do have the financial resources to cope with a pandemic outbreak, seek out illegal means to survive. This makes them involve themselves in petty stealing or full-blown house burglary. Job Skills There are a number of skills that can be learned during a pandemic. One of the top skills to learn is creativity. Companies who are able to become creative during a pandemic have been able to cope with the associated negative economic impacts. Companies would now lookout for talents who are very good at been creative. Information technology and data skills are also skills that can be developed during a pandemic. Big conglomerates who use big data analytics to project future business activity disruptions, would demand individuals who are equipped with such skills. Web designing, programming, and coding skills are not left out. With the movement of business to the digital age, people who are equipped or develop these digital skills become more demanded. People with good Leadership skills, a high level of emotional intelligence and deep thinking skills are also sought out during a pandemic. Hiring Sectors During a pandemic, it is often thought that no sector employs people to work. The fact is that is not the case. Shipping and delivery companies, for example, are often the biggest employers of labour during a pandemic. The present coronavirus pandemic has seen Amazon advertised vacancies for over 100,000 courier jobs. Online educational agencies are also employing. With the restricted movement in place, which includes the closure of all educational centres, parents have taken to online learning to keep their children occupied. Online tutors are been sought out as these remote learning companies have to increase their workforce. Firms who are into remote communication and teleconferencing, are also hiring to cope with the demands on their services during this pandemic. There is also the demand for dispatch riders by big chain grocery brands. This is to cope with the spike in the demand for house deliveries. The video gaming industry is also not left out as they hire more software developers. With the mitigating measures to stem the spread of a pandemic, especially in this coronavirus period, more people are resulting in online video gaming. Courier Delivery Service Growth The courier services industry experiences significant growth during a pandemic. This is because people would be looking for affordable and quick means of getting their needs delivered to them. Courier service delivery firms who make use of bikes experience a surge in the demand for their services during periods of a pandemic. This is especially noticed in the demand for these services by restaurants. As a means of lessening the pandemic spread through social interaction, Courier services get called up more by big chain restaurants to deliver food to their customers. Demand Shocks This is mostly felt by businesses that rely on social interaction. Businesses like restaurants, pubs, bars feel the pinch at the outbreak of a pandemic. This is because people would take to reducing social gatherings so as to limit their exposure to the spread of a pandemic. This, they have to make changes to the number of items they stock up, be it drinks or food. The manufacturing industry is also not left out here. With a pandemic, the percentage of demand they had for their products before a pandemic, drastically reduces when the pandemic grips the world. This often results in the laying off some of their workforces or not been able to pay salaries as at when due. Savings Culture Over the years, pandemics have made people realize the need for having up to six months savings in their bank account. This helps them take care of any expenses that could arise during a pandemic. Most of these expenses become expedient if there is a drastic need for mitigating measures to be put in place. This could include restricted movement. Having some money in the bank that could help in getting enough food to last through the period is a good idea. You never might know when you need to call upon your savings. Impact on Religion Pandemics have had and continue to have impacts on the faith practised by people. The present COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments worldwide to ban religious gatherings for the foreseeable future. This has made religious bodies to open up digital channels through which they can broadcast to their followers. The prohibition of religious gatherings even happened during the Black plague pandemic, as the constituted authorities back then used it as a means of curbing the spread of the plague back then. In conclusion, there is no doubt that a pandemic causes a lot of disruptions to the normal scheme of things. Of particular impact is the slump in the economies of the big Nations. They, however, can call on their financial reserves to cushion be effects of a pandemic. It is the unstable third works countries who mostly feel the financial uncertainties and burden that trails a pandemic. A pandemic also exposes the frailties of the health system worldwide. More facilities have to build, and a health system that caters to all and sundry. There is also the need for people on a personal note to be more healthy in their daily lives. Simple hygiene practices have been known to win the ear against pandemics. From the Spanish flu to the bird flu and the devastating severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic, all have been curbed to a large extent with hygienic practices. This includes washing hands with soap and water, proper ways of covering emissions, and a clean environment. In the end, the government has to respond to the outbreak of a pandemic. Mitigating measures such as restricted movement, border closures, a ban on air travel are all aimed at reducing the spread of a pandemic. They would be inconvenient, sometimes resulting in a revolt by the people. But they are just a means of keeping people safe.